What are the common types of silage additives
When silage is used, adding appropriate additives can not only improve the success rate of silage, but also make up for the quality of silage. The following introduces several commonly used additives and their addition methods.
1. Ammonia water and urea. Ammonia water and urea are a class of additives used in silage earlier, and are suitable for silage corn, sorghum and other cereals. After addition, it can increase the albumin content of the silage, inhibit the growth of aerobic microorganisms, and have no adverse effects on the appetite and digestive function of ruminant livestock. The amount of urea in silage is generally 0.3% -0.5%.
2. Formic acid. Formic acid is a good organic acid protective agent, which can inhibit the activity of Bacillus and Gram-positive bacteria and reduce the nutrient loss of feed. Experiments have shown that it can preserve about 70% of the sugar in the silage, and reduce the loss rate of crude protein to 0.3%~ 0.5%. The silage made by adding 1% to 2% formic acid has a bright green color and strong fragrance. Feeding dairy cows and calves with it can significantly increase the daily gain.
3. Dilute sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Adding the mixture of these two acids can quickly kill the bacteria in the silage, reduce the pH value of the silage, and soften the silage, which is beneficial to the digestion and absorption of livestock. In addition, the silage can also sink quickly, which is easy to compact, increase the storage capacity, and make the silage stop breathing quickly, thereby improving the success rate of silage. The method is: use 92 parts of 30% hydrochloric acid and 8 parts of 40% sulfuric acid to prepare the stock solution, dilute the stock solution 4 times with water when using, and add 50 to 60 kg of dilution per ton of raw material.
4. Formalaldehyde. Formalaldehyde can inhibit the activities of various microorganisms during the silage process. After adding formaldehyde to the silage material, there is basically no activity of spoilage bacteria during the fermentation process. The amount of ammonia nitrogen and total lactic acid in the silage material decreased significantly, and the digestibility of livestock was higher when fed with it. The general dosage of formaldehyde is 0.7%. If formic acid and formaldehyde (1.5% formic acid and 1.5%~ 2% formaldehyde) are added at the same time, the effect is better. This method is the best for silage young plants with more water content. Stem and leaves are the best.
5. Salt. Silage raw materials have low moisture content, rough texture, and difficult cells to ooze out. Adding table salt can promote cell fluid oozing, which is beneficial to lactic acid bacteria fermentation. Adding table salt can also destroy some toxins and improve the palatability of feed. The addition amount is 0.3% to 0.5%.
6. Live bacteria. Microstorage of straw with live bacteria is a new method that is being promoted in China in recent years. Adding live bacteria to treat straw can enzymatically hydrolyze the lignin and fiber in the straw, making the straw soft, pH value decreased, harmful bacteria activities were inhibited, and sugar and organic acid content increased, thereby improving digestibility. The dosage is 3 grams of live bacteria per ton of straw.
For pet food, yucca extract is also a good additive. Its main component is a complex of some saponin ligands and sugars. Due to its special physiological mechanism, it has a strong adsorption capacity for reactive gases, which can reduce the concentration of harmful gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, and has a great effect on improving the environment of keeping pets at home.
My country's feed industry started in the mid-to-late 1970s. Since 1992, the feed output has jumped to the second place in the world. Since 2011, the feed output has surpassed that of the United States and ranked first in the world. After more than 30 years of development, my country's feed industry has formed a complete feed industry system supported by feed processing industry, feed raw material industry, feed additive industry, feed machinery industry, feed scientific research and education, quality and safety.